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Why Assam floods happens every year?

Assam Floods, very much familiar words because it usually happens every year in Assam.

Assam, a northeastern state of India, covers almost an area of 30,285 sq mt. The state is very much famous for tea and silk. And also the state's Wildlife tourism and Kaziranga National Park comes under World Heritage Sites.

From a geographical point of view, the state has three parts, and that are the Northern plains, the northern Himalayas, and Deccan Plateau. The Brahmaputra is called the lifeline of Assam, but the primary reason for Assam floods. Assam has always been in the list of India’s most flood-prone states. 

Because of the unstable Brahmputra Assam floods are becoming worse. Researches also said that ever since the earthquake in the 1950s hit north India after then, the Brahmputra becomes more unstable. The frequency of the water flow of Brahmaputra is very much high. The number of floods in Assam is increasing every year. Till now, twelve floods have hit Assam. 

Once again, this year, too heavy rain has hit Assam along with destructive floods. In 2020 more than 2.8 lakh people of 30 districts are affected by the flood. Not only people but the wildlife of Assam have also affected by this. More than 100 people have died during floods. Around 85% of  Kaziranga National Park has immersed in the water. Animals of Kaziranga National Park which is a home for 2400 rhinos and other animals like deer, buffalo, and porcupines are now rushing towards the Karbi Anglong hills. More than 15 rhinos and dozens of other animals have died. 


Some of more reasons behind these increasing number of Assam floods

Deforestation of the forest to a large scale, cutting down of trees, forests Unplanned growth, urbanization. So whenever there is excess water in the river, and there is not enough room for the water to flow freely. The excess water flows in flood plains. Floodplains are the nearby areas of a river's course when there is an excess volume of water in the river. But People are building their houses in these flood plains.

Climate Change another significant reason for these massive floods, due to this some other parts like Meghalaya, Mizoram, UP and Bihar, are also on high alert. 

Improper construction of embankments( these are the walls build on the side of the river. It can be of Concrete or mud). Now, what is the problem with embankment is that whenever you try to restrict flow and try to reduce its area, then the speed of the flow of the water will increase and its level will also increase due to sedimentation. If the build-up of deposition in embankments does not remove, the level of water will continually rise.

In Assam, there are around 450 embankments on the banks of rivers. More than half of them are in an extremely vulnerable condition. 

The inadequate drainage system and infringement of flood plains.

The government has taken several steps towards this problem of floods and erosion.

More than 496 relief camps have been ascertained and more than 1.8 lakh people have taken shelter in these camps. 

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